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Vikings ist eine kanadisch-irische Fernsehserie, die lose auf den Erzählungen um den Deutschland. In Deutschland erschien die komplette erste Staffel am Vikings Germany. Gefällt Mal. Willkommen auf DEINER inoffizielen Vikings-Fanseite. Wir versorgen DICH täglich mit allen Neuigkeiten, Bildern und..​. th episode, which already reveals: The really big battle is just ahead! #Munin P.S. Unfortunately, a start date for season 6 part 2 of ′′ Vikings ′′ is still not fixed. Vikings wird in Deutschland von Amazon Prime Video als "Prime Exclusive" Die erfolgreiche Wikinger-Serie wurde im deutsche Fernsehen erstmals am. Weil er sich für nordische Mythologie und die Geschichte der Wikinger interessierte, wurde er von den Minnesota Vikings magisch angezogen –.

Vikings Deutschland

Weil er sich für nordische Mythologie und die Geschichte der Wikinger interessierte, wurde er von den Minnesota Vikings magisch angezogen –. In Deutschland geht es dann am Dezember los. Die einzelnen Folgen von „Vikings“ Staffel werden hierzulande immer am. Minnesota Vikings. Die gute Lindsay Young hat unseren Vice-President Marco Hassler dafür interviewt. Wir sind mehr als geehrt und über glücklich dies nach. However, there are a few major problems with this theory. Another etymology that gained Solitaire Online Spielen Kostenlos Ohne Anmeldung in the early twenty-first century, derives Viking from the same root as Old Norse vikaf. While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of reenactors has increased. Viking men would normally wear a woolen overtunic, linen undertunic, either tight or baggy Spielsucht Hilfe Tipps without pockets, woolen leg wrappings, and waterproof leather shoes. The decline in the profitability of old trade routes could also have played a role.

They were used as raw material for making everyday utensils like combs. In England the Viking Age began dramatically on 8 June when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on the island of Lindisfarne.

The devastation of Northumbria 's Holy Island shocked and alerted the royal courts of Europe to the Viking presence. Not until the s did scholars outside Scandinavia begin to seriously reassess the achievements of the Vikings, recognizing their artistry, technological skills, and seamanship.

Norse Mythology , sagas, and literature tell of Scandinavian culture and religion through tales of heroic and mythological heroes.

Many of these sagas were written in Iceland, and most of them, even if they had no Icelandic provenance, were preserved there after the Middle Ages due to the continued interest of Icelanders in Norse literature and law codes.

The year Viking influence on European history is filled with tales of plunder and colonisation, and the majority of these chronicles came from western witnesses and their descendants.

Less common, though equally relevant, are the Viking chronicles that originated in the east, including the Nestor chronicles, Novgorod chronicles, Ibn Fadlan chronicles, Ibn Rusta chronicles, and brief mentions by Photius , patriarch of Constantinople, regarding their first attack on the Byzantine Empire.

Other chroniclers of Viking history include Adam of Bremen , who wrote, in the fourth volume of his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum , "[t]here is much gold here in Zealand , accumulated by piracy.

These pirates, which are called wichingi by their own people, and Ascomanni by our own people, pay tribute to the Danish king. Early modern publications, dealing with what is now called Viking culture, appeared in the 16th century, e.

Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus History of the northern people of Olaus Magnus , and the first edition of the 13th-century Gesta Danorum Deeds of the Danes , by Saxo Grammaticus , in The pace of publication increased during the 17th century with Latin translations of the Edda notably Peder Resen's Edda Islandorum of An important early British contributor to the study of the Vikings was George Hickes , who published his Linguarum vett.

During the 18th century, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and early Scandinavian culture grew dramatically, expressed in English translations of Old Norse texts and in original poems that extolled the supposed Viking virtues.

The word "viking" was first popularised at the beginning of the 19th century by Erik Gustaf Geijer in his poem, The Viking.

Geijer's poem did much to propagate the new romanticised ideal of the Viking, which had little basis in historical fact.

The renewed interest of Romanticism in the Old North had contemporary political implications. The Geatish Society , of which Geijer was a member, popularised this myth to a great extent.

Fascination with the Vikings reached a peak during the so-called Viking revival in the late 18th and 19th centuries as a branch of Romantic nationalism.

In Britain this was called Septentrionalism, in Germany " Wagnerian " pathos, and in the Scandinavian countries Scandinavism.

Pioneering 19th-century scholarly editions of the Viking Age began to reach a small readership in Britain, archaeologists began to dig up Britain's Viking past, and linguistic enthusiasts started to identify the Viking-Age origins of rural idioms and proverbs.

The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to grapple with the primary Icelandic sagas. Few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources, as historians now rely more on archaeology and numismatics , disciplines that have made valuable contributions toward understanding the period.

The romanticised idea of the Vikings constructed in scholarly and popular circles in northwestern Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries was a potent one, and the figure of the Viking became a familiar and malleable symbol in different contexts in the politics and political ideologies of 20th-century Europe.

In Germany, awareness of Viking history in the 19th century had been stimulated by the border dispute with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Scandinavian mythology by Richard Wagner.

The idealised view of the Vikings appealed to Germanic supremacists who transformed the figure of the Viking in accordance with the ideology of a Germanic master race.

The cultural phenomenon of Viking expansion was re-interpreted for use as propaganda to support the extreme militant nationalism of the Third Reich, and ideologically informed interpretations of Viking paganism and the Scandinavian use of runes were employed in the construction of Nazi mysticism.

Other political organisations of the same ilk, such as the former Norwegian fascist party Nasjonal Samling , similarly appropriated elements of the modern Viking cultural myth in their symbolism and propaganda.

Soviet and earlier Slavophile historians emphasized a Slavic rooted foundation in contrast to the Normanist theory of the Vikings conquering the Slavs and founding the Kievan Rus'.

They argued that Rus' composition was Slavic and that Rurik and Oleg' success was rooted in their support from within the local Slavic aristocracy.

These have included novels directly based on historical events, such as Frans Gunnar Bengtsson 's The Long Ships which was also released as a film , and historical fantasies such as the film The Vikings , Michael Crichton 's Eaters of the Dead movie version called The 13th Warrior , and the comedy film Erik the Viking.

Vikings appear in several books by the Danish American writer Poul Anderson , while British explorer, historian, and writer Tim Severin authored a trilogy of novels in about a young Viking adventurer Thorgils Leifsson, who travels around the world.

The character also appears in the film The Avengers and its associated animated series. The appearance of Vikings within popular media and television has seen a resurgence in recent decades, especially with the History Channel's series Vikings , directed by Michael Hirst.

However, the conclusions remain contentious. Vikings have served as an inspiration for numerous video games , such as The Lost Vikings , Age of Mythology , and For Honor Modern reconstructions of Viking mythology have shown a persistent influence in late 20th- and early 21st-century popular culture in some countries, inspiring comics, movies, television series, role-playing games, computer games, and music, including Viking metal , a subgenre of heavy metal music.

Since the s, there has been rising enthusiasm for historical reenactment. While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of reenactors has increased.

Many reenactor groups participate in live-steel combat, and a few have Viking-style ships or boats. Apart from two or three representations of ritual helmets—with protrusions that may be either stylised ravens, snakes, or horns—no depiction of the helmets of Viking warriors, and no preserved helmet, has horns.

The formal, close-quarters style of Viking combat either in shield walls or aboard "ship islands" would have made horned helmets cumbersome and hazardous to the warrior's own side.

Historians therefore believe that Viking warriors did not wear horned helmets; whether such helmets were used in Scandinavian culture for other, ritual purposes, remains unproven.

The general misconception that Viking warriors wore horned helmets was partly promulgated by the 19th-century enthusiasts of Götiska Förbundet , founded in in Stockholm.

The Vikings were often depicted with winged helmets and in other clothing taken from Classical antiquity , especially in depictions of Norse gods.

This was done to legitimise the Vikings and their mythology by associating it with the Classical world, which had long been idealised in European culture.

The latter-day mythos created by national romantic ideas blended the Viking Age with aspects of the Nordic Bronze Age some 2, years earlier.

Horned helmets from the Bronze Age were shown in petroglyphs and appeared in archaeological finds see Bohuslän and Vikso helmets. They were probably used for ceremonial purposes.

Cartoons like Hägar the Horrible and Vicky the Viking , and sports kits such as those of the Minnesota Vikings and Canberra Raiders have perpetuated the myth of the horned helmet.

Viking helmets were conical, made from hard leather with wood and metallic reinforcement for regular troops. The iron helmet with mask and mail was for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel -age helmets from central Sweden.

The only original Viking helmet discovered is the Gjermundbu helmet , found in Norway. This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century.

The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality.

There is no evidence that Vikings drank out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. This was a reference to drinking horns , but was mistranslated in the 17th century [] as referring to the skulls of the slain.

Studies of genetic diversity provide indication of the origin and expansion of the Norse population. Female descent studies show evidence of Norse descent in areas closest to Scandinavia, such as the Shetland and Orkney islands.

Recent research suggests that the Celtic warrior Somerled , who drove the Vikings out of western Scotland and was the progenitor of Clan Donald , may have been of Viking descent , a member of haplogroup R-M From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Viking disambiguation. Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates. Contemporary countries.

Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Sweden. Other topics. Main article: Viking Age. Main article: Viking expansion.

Main article: Runestone. The Lingsberg Runestone in Sweden. Runic inscriptions of the larger of the Jelling Stones in Denmark.

Two types of Norse runestones from the Viking Age. See also: Norse funeral and Ship burial. Burial mounds Gamla Uppsala. Examples of Viking burial mounds and stone set graves, collectively known as tumuli.

Main article: Viking ships. Prow of the Oseberg ship , at Oslo Museum. A reconstructed longship. Two typical viking ships. Main article: Viking Age arms and armour.

Viking swords. This section appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture.

Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, providing citations to reliable, secondary sources , rather than simply listing appearances.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Play media. Main article: Horned helmet. Constructs such as ibid. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references quick guide , or an abbreviated title.

August Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Vikings. Cambridge University Press. The term 'Viking' This is the narrow, and technically the only correct use of the term 'Viking,' but in such expressions as 'Viking civilisation,' 'the Viking age,' 'the Viking movement,' 'Viking influence,' the word has come to have a wider significance and is used as a concise and convenient term for describing the whole of the civilisation, activity and influence of the Scandinavian peoples, at a particular period in their history, and to apply the term 'Viking' in its narrower sense to these movements would be as misleading as to write an account of the age of Elizabeth and label it 'The Buccaneers.

Historical Dictionary of the Vikings. Scarecrow Press. Viking is not merely another way of referring to a medieval Scandinavian. Technically, the word has a more specific meaning, and it was used only infrequently by contemporaries of the Vikings to refer to those Scandinavians, usually men, who attacked their contemporaries Simpson, Jacqueline The Viking World.

Strictly speaking, therefore, the term Viking should only be applied to men actually engaged in these violent pursuits, and not to every contemporary Scandinavian Davies, Norman The Isles: A History.

Oxford University Press. The Viking appellation Encyclopaedia Britannica. The term "Viking" is applied today to Scandinavians who left their homes intent on raiding or conquest, and their descendants, during a period extending roughly from a.

Mawer, Allen In Bury, J. The Cambridge Medieval History. The term Viking The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 ed. Retrieved 3 January Scandinavian words used to describe the seafaring raiders from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark who ravaged the coasts of Europe from about ad onwards.

Crowcroft, Robert; Cannon, John , eds. The Oxford Companion to British History 2 ed. Viking is an Old Norse term, of disputed derivation, which only came into common usage in the 19th cent.

Concise Oxford English Dictionary. OUP Oxford. Vikings: Any of the Scandinavian seafaring pirates and traders who raided and settled in many parts of NW Europe in the 8th—11th centuries Random House Unabridged Dictionary Random House.

Collins Online Dictionary. The Vikings were people who sailed from Scandinavia and attacked villages in most parts of north-western Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries Collins English Dictionary.

Webster's New World Dictionary, 4th Edition Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Cambridge Dictionary. Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 30 September Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century and whose disruptive influence profoundly affected European history.

These pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were Archived from the original on 30 September Lepel Regional Executive Committee.

Visby Sweden , n. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. Skeat , published in , defined Viking : better Wiking, Icel.

Viking-r, O. Skeat; Clarendon press; p. An etymological contribution" PDF. Arkiv för Nordisk Filologi. Archived from the original PDF on 14 July Retrieved 20 April Skeat: Principles of English Etymology Clarendon press, p.

Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 17 March A reply to Harald Bjorvand". Centre of Medieval Studies University of Bergen.

Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 13 January Boas 13 May Linguistics Research Center. The University of Texas at Austin.

Archived from the original on 22 December Archaeology in Europe. Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 23 April Retrieved 8 June — via academia.

Saga-book of the Viking Society. University College London. Retrieved 15 April Ancient History Encyclopedia. Sweden History Tours.

The Varangians of Byzantium. Retrieved 2 February Retrieved 25 July Arabic Sources On The Vikings. Nicolle, D, Turnbull, S Kalmback Publishing.

Archived from the original on 30 April Retrieved 6 April National Geographic. Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 21 May Archived from the original PDF on 18 July Retrieved 11 May Bibcode : Wthr Der Spiegel.

Spiegel Online International. Archived from the original on 1 March Retrieved 27 February Aarhus University.

Retrieved 20 December Acta Archaeologica. Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 19 July Live Science.

Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 21 July All That's Interesting. Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 22 July Not According to Their Slaves".

National Geographic News. Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 2 August Wyatt Slaves and Warriors in Medieval Britain and Ireland: — Archived from the original on 23 July The Telegraph.

Archived from the original on 1 August Retrieved 1 August The Vintage News. Scandinavian Studies. A historical essay". Annals of Neurology.

Evolution and Human Behavior. Science AAAS. Archived from the original on 27 July Crellin; Christian Horn; Marion Uckelmann Boyer history, myths, dictionary, Robert Laffont several , p.

A bibliography of French-language", Caen, Centre for research on the countries of the North and Northwest, University of Caen, , p.

Policy Review. Hoover Institution. Archived from the original on 16 December First Georgias Press. National Museum of Denmark.

Archived from the original on 18 March New York: Oxford University Press. London: Norton. James Graham-Campbell and Gareth Williams, pp.

Retrieved 8 June Archived from the original on 20 June Retrieved 15 March In the accusative: kriki Sö In Gerhard Stickel ed. Peter Lang.

Retrieved 6 March Department of Nordic Studies and Linguistics. University of Copenhagen. Retrieved 27 January In many aspects, Elfdalian, takes up a middle position between East and West Nordic.

However, it shares some innovations with West Nordic, but none with East Nordic. Aftonbladet in Swedish. Retrieved 7 March Retrieved 16 May Diplomarbeit " [Elfdalian — Language or dialect?

Masters thesis ] PDF in German. University of Vienna. Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia Illustrated ed. Medieval Archaeology.

XLIX : — Archived from the original on 20 January Retrieved 22 February Archived from the original on 28 February CNN Travel.

Archived from the original on 9 July Retrieved 6 July University of Oslo. Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 23 June Libris American Journal of Physical Anthropology.

April Archived from the original on 2 May Oxbow Books , p. Archaeological Institute of America. Edited by, Eric Cambridge and Jane Hawkes.

Oxbow Books Gudjonsson : Folkekost og sundhedsforhold i gamle dage. Belyst igennem den oldnordiske Litteratur.

Danish Journal of Archaeology. Archived from the original PDF on 25 July Retrieved 19 June Ribe Vikingecenter in Danish. Archived from the original on 7 September Archived from the original on 28 April In southern Scandinavia ie.

Denmark , the heath sheep of Lüneburger Heidschnucke was raised and kept. Ribe Vikingecenter. Archived from the original on 19 April Retrieved 19 April Danish Agricultural Museum.

Jorvik Viking Centre. Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities. Archived from the original on 21 April Archived from the original on 14 July In Tamime, Adnan ed.

Fermented Milks. Archived PDF from the original on 21 October The Jorvik Viking Centre. Archived from the original on 20 April University of Southern Denmark.

Archived PDF from the original on 24 September Archived from the original on 20 February Retrieved 1 March Retrieved 14 November Archived from the original on 30 March History Compass.

Archived from the original on 14 April Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. Encyclopedia of the Ancient World. Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 17 October Boydell Press.

Maps of trade routes. Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on 27 February Retrieved 24 February An inquiry into the glass beads of the Vikings.

Sourced information and pictures. Apollon — research magazine. Archived from the original on 27 May Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings.

Retrieved 28 February Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Social Stress. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings.

Retrieved 17 October — via Internet Archive. Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Retrieved 7 September Boydell and Brewer , p.

Wordwell Ltd. University of Illinois Press. Retrieved 14 December Part 2". Archived from the original on 13 April Retrieved 17 September The Economist.

Retrieved 10 April Archived from the original on 15 February May Annals of Human Genetics. The American Journal of Human Genetics. Bowden, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 20 November ".

Molecular Biology and Evolution. Archived from the original PDF on 1 September The Scotsman. Archived from the original on 5 June Retrieved 19 August Brink, Stefan In Brink, Stefan; Price, Neil eds.

Brookes, Ian Chambers concise dictionary. Allied Publishers. D'Amato, Raffaele The Varangian Guard — Osprey Publishing. Derry, T.

London and Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Educational Company of Ireland 10 October Roberts Rinehart. Fitzhugh, William W. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Hall, Richard Andrew The World of the Vikings. Hall, Richard Viking Age Archaeology in Britain and Ireland. Meanwhile, Viking armies remained active on the European continent throughout the ninth century, brutally sacking Nantes on the French coast in and attacking towns as far inland as Paris, Limoges, Orleans, Tours and Nimes.

In , Vikings stormed Seville then controlled by the Arabs ; in , they plundered Pisa, though an Arab fleet battered them on the way back north.

In the ninth century, Scandinavians mainly Norwegians began to colonize Iceland, an island in the North Atlantic where no one had yet settled in large numbers.

By the late 10th century, some Vikings including the famous Erik the Red moved even further westward, to Greenland. According to later Icelandic histories, some of the early Viking settlers in Greenland supposedly led by the Viking hero Leif Eriksson , son of Erik the Red may have become the first Europeans to discover and explore North America.

The midth-century reign of Harald Bluetooth as king of a newly unified, powerful and Christianized Denmark marked the beginning of a second Viking age.

Large-scale raids, often organized by royal leaders, hit the coasts of Europe and especially England, where the line of kings descended from Alfred the Great was faltering.

Crowned king of England on Christmas Day in , William managed to retain the crown against further Danish challenges.

The events of in England effectively marked the end of the Viking Age. Today, signs of the Viking legacy can be found mostly in the Scandinavian origins of some vocabulary and place-names in the areas in which they settled, including northern England, Scotland and Russia.

In Iceland, the Vikings left an extensive body of literature, the Icelandic sagas, in which they celebrated the greatest victories of their glorious past.

But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present.

The Viking Age brought change not only to the regions of Europe plundered and conquered by the Nordic warriors, but to Scandinavia itself.

Beginning around A. While the exact reasons for Vikings venturing out from their homeland are uncertain; some have suggested it was Advances in Shipbuilding and Navigation Perhaps the most striking of Viking achievements was their state-of-the-art shipbuilding technology, which allowed them to travel greater distances than anyone before them.

Their signature longboats—sleek wooden vessels with shallow Not even St. Patrick himself could protect Ireland from the Vikings. When the Nordic raiders launched their first attack on Ireland in A.

No heavenly intercession arrived, however, to save their How exactly the seafaring Scandinavians known as the Vikings navigated millions of miles of open water, raiding ports and settling uncharted territories from roughly to A.

Archaeological evidence suggests they traveled with Leif Erikson was the son of Erik the Red, founder of the first European settlement on what is now called Greenland.

Around A. According to one school of thought, Erikson sailed off course on his The epic voyages of the Vikings to the British Isles, Iceland, North America and points west tend to obscure the fact that the Scandinavian warriors also ventured far to the east across Europe and parts of Asia.

While the Danes and Norwegians sailed west, Swedish fighters and John Cabot or Giovanni Caboto, as he was known in Italian was an Italian explorer and navigator who may have developed the idea of sailing westward to reach the riches of Asia while working for a Venetian merchant.

Though the exact details of his life and expeditions are the

Minnesota Vikings. Die gute Lindsay Young hat unseren Vice-President Marco Hassler dafür interviewt. Wir sind mehr als geehrt und über glücklich dies nach. Aus lizenzrechtlichen Gründen war die gestartete Historien-Serie „Vikings“ in Deutschland viele Jahre ausschließlich bei Amazon Video. In Deutschland geht es dann am Dezember los. Die einzelnen Folgen von „Vikings“ Staffel werden hierzulande immer am. Vikings. 5 StaffelnSerien. Dieses Drama nach einer nordischen Sage begleitet die Abenteuer des Wikingerhelden Ragnar Lodbrok, der den unfähigen​. Staffel “Vikings”. In Deutschland werden die neuen Folgen immer donnerstags ausgestrahlt. Die Rechte dafür liegen bei Amazon Prime Video.

Apart from two or three representations of ritual helmets—with protrusions that may be either stylised ravens, snakes, or horns—no depiction of the helmets of Viking warriors, and no preserved helmet, has horns.

The formal, close-quarters style of Viking combat either in shield walls or aboard "ship islands" would have made horned helmets cumbersome and hazardous to the warrior's own side.

Historians therefore believe that Viking warriors did not wear horned helmets; whether such helmets were used in Scandinavian culture for other, ritual purposes, remains unproven.

The general misconception that Viking warriors wore horned helmets was partly promulgated by the 19th-century enthusiasts of Götiska Förbundet , founded in in Stockholm.

The Vikings were often depicted with winged helmets and in other clothing taken from Classical antiquity , especially in depictions of Norse gods.

This was done to legitimise the Vikings and their mythology by associating it with the Classical world, which had long been idealised in European culture.

The latter-day mythos created by national romantic ideas blended the Viking Age with aspects of the Nordic Bronze Age some 2, years earlier.

Horned helmets from the Bronze Age were shown in petroglyphs and appeared in archaeological finds see Bohuslän and Vikso helmets. They were probably used for ceremonial purposes.

Cartoons like Hägar the Horrible and Vicky the Viking , and sports kits such as those of the Minnesota Vikings and Canberra Raiders have perpetuated the myth of the horned helmet.

Viking helmets were conical, made from hard leather with wood and metallic reinforcement for regular troops.

The iron helmet with mask and mail was for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel -age helmets from central Sweden.

The only original Viking helmet discovered is the Gjermundbu helmet , found in Norway. This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century.

The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality.

There is no evidence that Vikings drank out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. This was a reference to drinking horns , but was mistranslated in the 17th century [] as referring to the skulls of the slain.

Studies of genetic diversity provide indication of the origin and expansion of the Norse population. Female descent studies show evidence of Norse descent in areas closest to Scandinavia, such as the Shetland and Orkney islands.

Recent research suggests that the Celtic warrior Somerled , who drove the Vikings out of western Scotland and was the progenitor of Clan Donald , may have been of Viking descent , a member of haplogroup R-M From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Viking disambiguation. Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates. Contemporary countries. Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Sweden.

Other topics. Main article: Viking Age. Main article: Viking expansion. Main article: Runestone. The Lingsberg Runestone in Sweden.

Runic inscriptions of the larger of the Jelling Stones in Denmark. Two types of Norse runestones from the Viking Age.

See also: Norse funeral and Ship burial. Burial mounds Gamla Uppsala. Examples of Viking burial mounds and stone set graves, collectively known as tumuli.

Main article: Viking ships. Prow of the Oseberg ship , at Oslo Museum. A reconstructed longship. Two typical viking ships.

Main article: Viking Age arms and armour. Viking swords. This section appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture.

Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, providing citations to reliable, secondary sources , rather than simply listing appearances.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Play media. Main article: Horned helmet.

Constructs such as ibid. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references quick guide , or an abbreviated title. August Learn how and when to remove this template message.

The Vikings. Cambridge University Press. The term 'Viking' This is the narrow, and technically the only correct use of the term 'Viking,' but in such expressions as 'Viking civilisation,' 'the Viking age,' 'the Viking movement,' 'Viking influence,' the word has come to have a wider significance and is used as a concise and convenient term for describing the whole of the civilisation, activity and influence of the Scandinavian peoples, at a particular period in their history, and to apply the term 'Viking' in its narrower sense to these movements would be as misleading as to write an account of the age of Elizabeth and label it 'The Buccaneers.

Historical Dictionary of the Vikings. Scarecrow Press. Viking is not merely another way of referring to a medieval Scandinavian.

Technically, the word has a more specific meaning, and it was used only infrequently by contemporaries of the Vikings to refer to those Scandinavians, usually men, who attacked their contemporaries Simpson, Jacqueline The Viking World.

Strictly speaking, therefore, the term Viking should only be applied to men actually engaged in these violent pursuits, and not to every contemporary Scandinavian Davies, Norman The Isles: A History.

Oxford University Press. The Viking appellation Encyclopaedia Britannica. The term "Viking" is applied today to Scandinavians who left their homes intent on raiding or conquest, and their descendants, during a period extending roughly from a.

Mawer, Allen In Bury, J. The Cambridge Medieval History. The term Viking The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 ed.

Retrieved 3 January Scandinavian words used to describe the seafaring raiders from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark who ravaged the coasts of Europe from about ad onwards.

Crowcroft, Robert; Cannon, John , eds. The Oxford Companion to British History 2 ed. Viking is an Old Norse term, of disputed derivation, which only came into common usage in the 19th cent.

Concise Oxford English Dictionary. OUP Oxford. Vikings: Any of the Scandinavian seafaring pirates and traders who raided and settled in many parts of NW Europe in the 8th—11th centuries Random House Unabridged Dictionary Random House.

Collins Online Dictionary. The Vikings were people who sailed from Scandinavia and attacked villages in most parts of north-western Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries Collins English Dictionary.

Webster's New World Dictionary, 4th Edition Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Cambridge Dictionary. Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 30 September Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century and whose disruptive influence profoundly affected European history.

These pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were Archived from the original on 30 September Lepel Regional Executive Committee. Visby Sweden , n.

Woodbridge: Boydell Press. Skeat , published in , defined Viking : better Wiking, Icel. Viking-r, O.

Skeat; Clarendon press; p. An etymological contribution" PDF. Arkiv för Nordisk Filologi. Archived from the original PDF on 14 July Retrieved 20 April Skeat: Principles of English Etymology Clarendon press, p.

Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 17 March A reply to Harald Bjorvand". Centre of Medieval Studies University of Bergen. Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 13 January Boas 13 May Linguistics Research Center.

The University of Texas at Austin. Archived from the original on 22 December Archaeology in Europe. Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 23 April Retrieved 8 June — via academia.

Saga-book of the Viking Society. University College London. Retrieved 15 April Ancient History Encyclopedia.

Sweden History Tours. The Varangians of Byzantium. Retrieved 2 February Retrieved 25 July Arabic Sources On The Vikings. Nicolle, D, Turnbull, S Kalmback Publishing.

Archived from the original on 30 April Retrieved 6 April National Geographic. Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 21 May Archived from the original PDF on 18 July Retrieved 11 May Bibcode : Wthr Der Spiegel.

Spiegel Online International. Archived from the original on 1 March Retrieved 27 February Aarhus University.

Retrieved 20 December Acta Archaeologica. Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 19 July Live Science. Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 21 July All That's Interesting.

Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 22 July Not According to Their Slaves". National Geographic News.

Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 2 August Wyatt Slaves and Warriors in Medieval Britain and Ireland: — Archived from the original on 23 July The Telegraph.

Archived from the original on 1 August Retrieved 1 August The Vintage News. Scandinavian Studies. A historical essay". Annals of Neurology.

Evolution and Human Behavior. Science AAAS. Archived from the original on 27 July Crellin; Christian Horn; Marion Uckelmann Boyer history, myths, dictionary, Robert Laffont several , p.

A bibliography of French-language", Caen, Centre for research on the countries of the North and Northwest, University of Caen, , p.

Policy Review. Hoover Institution. Archived from the original on 16 December First Georgias Press. National Museum of Denmark. Archived from the original on 18 March New York: Oxford University Press.

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Peter Lang. Retrieved 6 March Department of Nordic Studies and Linguistics. University of Copenhagen. Retrieved 27 January In many aspects, Elfdalian, takes up a middle position between East and West Nordic.

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Category Portal. Unlike other groups, these strange new invaders had no respect for religious institutions such as the monasteries, which were often left unguarded and vulnerable near the shore.

Two years later, Viking raids struck the undefended island monasteries of Skye and Iona in the Hebrides as well as Rathlin off the northeast coast of Ireland.

For several decades, the Vikings confined themselves to hit-and-run raids against coastal targets in the British Isles particularly Ireland and Europe the trading center of Dorestad, 80 kilometers from the North Sea, became a frequent target after They then took advantage of internal conflicts in Europe to extend their activity further inland: after the death of Louis the Pious, emperor of Frankia modern-day France and Germany , in , his son Lothar actually invited the support of a Viking fleet in a power struggle with brothers.

Before long other Vikings realized that Frankish rulers were willing to pay them rich sums to prevent them from attacking their subjects, making Frankia an irresistible target for further Viking activity.

By the mid-ninth century, Ireland, Scotland and England had become major targets for Viking settlement as well as raids. When King Charles the Bald began defending West Frankia more energetically in , fortifying towns, abbeys, rivers and coastal areas, Viking forces began to concentrate more on England than Frankia.

In the wave of Viking attacks in England after , only one kingdom—Wessex—was able to successfully resist.

Viking armies mostly Danish conquered East Anglia and Northumberland and dismantled Mercia, while in King Alfred the Great of Wessex became the only king to decisively defeat a Danish army in England.

In the first half of the 10th century, English armies led by the descendants of Alfred of Wessex began reconquering Scandinavian areas of England; the last Scandinavian king, Erik Bloodaxe, was expelled and killed around , permanently uniting English into one kingdom.

Meanwhile, Viking armies remained active on the European continent throughout the ninth century, brutally sacking Nantes on the French coast in and attacking towns as far inland as Paris, Limoges, Orleans, Tours and Nimes.

In , Vikings stormed Seville then controlled by the Arabs ; in , they plundered Pisa, though an Arab fleet battered them on the way back north.

In the ninth century, Scandinavians mainly Norwegians began to colonize Iceland, an island in the North Atlantic where no one had yet settled in large numbers.

By the late 10th century, some Vikings including the famous Erik the Red moved even further westward, to Greenland. According to later Icelandic histories, some of the early Viking settlers in Greenland supposedly led by the Viking hero Leif Eriksson , son of Erik the Red may have become the first Europeans to discover and explore North America.

The midth-century reign of Harald Bluetooth as king of a newly unified, powerful and Christianized Denmark marked the beginning of a second Viking age.

Large-scale raids, often organized by royal leaders, hit the coasts of Europe and especially England, where the line of kings descended from Alfred the Great was faltering.

Crowned king of England on Christmas Day in , William managed to retain the crown against further Danish challenges.

The events of in England effectively marked the end of the Viking Age. Today, signs of the Viking legacy can be found mostly in the Scandinavian origins of some vocabulary and place-names in the areas in which they settled, including northern England, Scotland and Russia.

In Iceland, the Vikings left an extensive body of literature, the Icelandic sagas, in which they celebrated the greatest victories of their glorious past.

But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present.

The Viking Age brought change not only to the regions of Europe plundered and conquered by the Nordic warriors, but to Scandinavia itself.

Beginning around A. While the exact reasons for Vikings venturing out from their homeland are uncertain; some have suggested it was Advances in Shipbuilding and Navigation Perhaps the most striking of Viking achievements was their state-of-the-art shipbuilding technology, which allowed them to travel greater distances than anyone before them.

Their signature longboats—sleek wooden vessels with shallow Not even St. Patrick himself could protect Ireland from the Vikings.

When the Nordic raiders launched their first attack on Ireland in A.

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